Thursday, 29 April 2010

A whole new world: The amazing map based on population

It is a world away from the world we know. But this is how the countries of the world look if maps are based on population size rather than land mass.

Academics came up with the startling images after throwing away 500 years of conventional cartography. The result was this very different global landscape.

The map below shows the distribution of the Earth's population, with the size of each territory showing the relative proportion of people living there. India, China and Japan loom large as they have the largest populations.

Spain bulges beyond recognition while Australia, one of the world's largest countries, is relegated to pipsqueak status

Read more:

WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRIES? Is all territory densely populated.

Wednesday, 28 April 2010

How to Understand Earth's Population Distribution

The Earth contains over 6.6 billion people. But these six billion are not evenly spread over the world's habitable surface. Where are all these people located? Many factors contribute to the geography spread of people and populations around the globe, such as climate, terrain and topography, physical and political boundaries, and more. However, broad general patterns of populations on Earth can still be understood. This article will outline the general characteristics of Earth's human population distribution.
  1. Step 1.Two-thirds of Earth's population lives within the mid latitudes, and almost 90 percent of the world's population lives north of the equator.
  2. Step 2.Around 90 percent of the world's population is concentrated on only 20 percent of the land surface. Therefore, a large majority of Earth's inhabitants live on and occupy a small portion of Earth's total habitable land area.
  3. Step 3.Three major population centers around the world include: East Asia (China, the Koreas, and Japan); South Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh); and Europe (Western, Eastern, and Southern Europe). In fact, two countries each contain over one billion people: China and India. Since Earth's population is over six billion, this means that China and India each contain at least one-sixth of the Earth's total human population. Each major world region contained the following percentage of the Earth's total population in 1999: Africa (12.8 %), Asia (60.8 %), Europe (12.2 %), Latin America and the Caribbean (8.5 %), North America (5.1 %), Oceania (0.5 %).
  4. Step 4 . While low-lying areas are more preferable for the locations of settlements, still a large portion of the Earth remains quite uninhabited. The sparsely population regions include northern and western North America, northern and central Asia, and interior South America, interior Africa, and the interior of Australia.
  5. Step 5 Cities and urban regions have seen dramatic increases in population over the last fifty years, with much growth continuing at present and into the future. Currently the Earth's urban population is estimated to be around 3.5 billion people. based in..

Tuesday, 27 April 2010

World Population Video

This seven minute film depicts the history of human population growth and distribution from 1 AD through the present, then projects future growth to the year 2030.

Eight frames of the video are presented here: the opening in 1 AD; then skipping ahead to 1800, when the population reached the first billion, followed by the years in which the population reached each successive billion; and the closing frame at 2030, showing the 8.2 billion people expected to inhabit the Earth by then if current growth rates continue.

Monday, 26 April 2010

Work in Groupe: The Baroque

We will go to do an homework where you will explain the Baroque. You can make the presentation with Power Point or other kind .
All people will have to participate and speaking one part of work the group. The groups can have 2 or 3 people, nobody can stay in the same group
You can ask help if you don´t know how do any question or problem.
Political situation:
  • * France
  • * England
  • * Unites Provinces
Political crisis :

  • * Philip III _ Moriscos
  • * Philip IV_ Domestic Policy, The Thirty Years´War, etc..
  • * Charles II

Baroque Art
  • Architecture: Characteristics
  • Painting: Characteristics , The Italian, Dutch, Flemish and Spanish painting
  • Sculture: Characteristics, Spanish sculture

Sunday, 25 April 2010

Spread of the potato

From its origin in the highlands of Southern Peru the domesticated potato has been transported all around the world.

The first diffusion of the domesticated potato was within the Americas. It started (possibly thousands of years ago) when early farmers from the highlands of southern Peru, took their crop plants both further north into Central America and South to southern Chile.

The next major spread of the potato came as a result of the Spanish invasion of South America in the 1500s. An early account of the potato (published in 1551) by the Spanish explorer Cieza de Leon describes it as "… a kind of earth nut, which after it has been boiled, is as tender as a cooked chestnut, but it has no more skin than a truffle, and it grows under the earth in the same way."

Evidence from early herbarium (plant library) specimens indicate that the first potatoes introduced to Europe came from the northern highlands of South America, around Peru and Columbia. These areas were part of the Incan Empire, which was conquered by the Spanish in 1532.

It seems likely then that it was the Spanish that first exported the potato from South America. Though it appears that rather than being introduced directly to mainland Europe they were first cultivated in the Canary Islands. From there they were then shipped to European countries including Belgium and France. The first record of a potato on mainland Europe comes in the accounts of a Spanish hospital in 1573.

The cultivated potato was introduced to Bermuda by the British in 1613, from where it was introduced into North America in 1621. The British were then responsible for spreading the potato to India and China in the late 1600s.

Also in the late 1600s potatoes appeared in Africa and Japan and potatoes were introduced to New Zealand in 1769, being swiftly adopted by the Maoris who were already cultivating sweet potatoes ( Plant histories).

What do you think about this spread?

Saturday, 24 April 2010

The Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada

In May 1588 a massive invasion fleet or 'Armada' sailed from the port of Lisbon. It was made up of 130 ships fitted with 2,500 guns. They carried 30,000 soldiers and sailors. This great war fleet was bound for England.

Why is the 1588 battle with the Spanish Armada so famous?

The Armada is famous because at that time England was a small nation with a little navy and they were facing the greatest power in the world (Spain). They defeated Spain, with help from Mother Nature. It marked the beginning of England's mastery of the seas.

The great history of the English navy began, as did serious English exploration and colonization.

Why was the Spanish Armada launched against England?

The Spanish monarch, Philip II, was angry that Queen Elizabeth had not punished Sir Francis Drake and other English seadogs for plundering Spanish ships.

Philip was a devout Catholic. He felt it was his duty to invade and conquer England in order to convert the country back to the Church of Rome.

Where did the Spanish fleet meet the English fleet?

The two fleets met in the English Channel. There were many more Spanish ships than the English ships but the English ships were smaller and easy to manoeuvre. This would turn out to be a great advantage for the English.

How did Queen Elizabeth I's fire ships help to defeat the Spanish Armada?

On 6 August 1588, the Spanish Armada anchored at Calais. The English filled eighty ships with flammable material and set fire to them. They sent in fireships to panic the Spaniards and scatter the Armada's formation. (The Armada's formation, the famous crescent, had proved extremely successful in previous campaign as it allowed all ships to fire their heavy guns simultaneously.) The Spanish panicked and fled to the open sea, straight into the gunfire of the waiting English.

In the open sea, the Armada wasn’t in formation, so the Spanish ships were easy targets for the English artillery.

rose What also aided the English in defeating the Armada?

An important reason why the English were able to defeat the Armada was that the wind blew the Spanish ships northwards. Strong winds and terrible rain forced many ships onto rocks near

The English celebrated their victory with a medal saying 'God Blew and they were Scattered'

based in ....

Thursday, 22 April 2010

Charles V and the Holy roman Empire



Where was born Charles V?

Could Charles V make decisions alone?

Whose approval did he need before increasing taxes, for example?

Who were the children of Charles I?

Who ruled each territory in the king’s name?

Why did the king need to ask for loans?

Why did Charles V have problems with France?

The main battles against France

Why were the Ottoman Turks his rivals?

The main battles against the Ottoman Empire

What was his most serious problem?

How did he divide his possessions when he surrendered his power?

Where Charles V decided to retire

Tuesday, 20 April 2010

La Revuelta de las Comunidades

La revuelta de las Comunidades tuvo un marcado carácter urbano y municipalista, con claro dominio del patriciado hidalgo y letrado, en ciudades y villas como Toledo, Segovia, Avila, Salamanca, Cuenca, Madrid y Guadalajara. La alta nobleza quedó, en principio, al margen de la revuelta para ponerse del lado del Emperador en cuanto el tono antiseñorial del movimiento provocó las primeras alarmas entre sus miembros.
Su programa aparece, ante todo, en los documentos y manifiestos de la Junta Santa de Avila constituida en septiembre de 1520, y su gran pretensión habría sido conseguir el apoyo efectivo de la reina Juana retirada en Tordesillas y cuya realeza plena reclaman los comuneros frente a los abusos de su hijo. Esta, sin duda, primera gran revuelta del siglo XVI (1520-1521) es una muestra del vigor de la postura particularista castellana frente al universalismo de la idea imperial de Carlos V y sus consejeros, quienes no consiguieron convencer en las Cortes de Santiago-La Coruña de los beneficios que para Castilla tendría la política carolina. Los comuneros defienden los privilegios y libertades del reino frente a la corte y al propio monarca, insistiendo en la necesidad de gobernar Castilla conforme a sus primeros fueros particulares, con el concurso de sus naturales (indigenato) y con el consentimiento de sus cortes privativas.
Sus caudillos más destacados fueron el regidor segoviano Juan Bravo, Francisco Maldonado, de Salamanca, y Juan Padilla, al frente de las milicias municipales de Toledo y quien asumió el mando de las fuerzas comuneras, convirtiéndose en el más importante jefe militar de los sublevados. El 23 de abril de 1521, los comuneros son derrotados por la caballería realista en Villalar; Padilla, Bravo y Maldonado serán ejecutados y sólo la ciudad de Toledo mantendrá viva durante algún tiempo la revuelta. En octubre de 1522, Carlos I concede un Perdón General que pretendía recuperar definitivamente la paz en Castílla tras los "grandes movimientos y alteraciones que en ella ha habido y hubo en ausencia de mí, el Rey... a voz de comunidades".
Mientras en Castilla se preparaba y desarrollaba la revuelta comunera, en Valencia y Mallorca se producían las Germanías, un movimiento quizá menos peligroso políticamente al no contar los agermanados con gran cohesión programática, pero que localmente supuso una enorme convulsión contra el poder señorial y la minoría de origen musulmán.

"que después dél [Carlos 1] no pueda suceder muger ninguna en el
reino; pero que no habiendo hijos, que puedan suceder hijos e hijas é de
nietas siendo nascidos é bautizados en Castilla; (...) quel Rey no pueda
poner Coregidor en ningun logar, sino que cada ciudad é villa elijan el
primero dia del año tres personas de los hidalgos é otras tres de los
labradores, é questos dos que escojeren sean alcaldes de cevil é criminal
por tres años, (...) que los oficios de la casa Real se hayan de dar á
personas que sean nascidos é bautizados en Castilla, (...), quel Rey no
pueda sacar ni dar licencia para que se saque moneda ninguna del reino,
ni pasta de oro ni de plata, é que en Castilla no pueda andar ni valer
moneda ninguna de vellon sino fuere fúndida é marcada en el reino (...)
Que cada é cuando alguno hubiere de suceder en el reino, antes que sea
rescibido por Rey, (...) confiese que rescibe el reino con estas
condiciones, (...)".
Peticiones de los comuneros en la Junta Santa de Ávila, 1521

Thursday, 15 April 2010

Martin Luther and the German Reformation and The Counter-Reformation

Martin Luther and the German Reformation
1. (a) Describe the event that is taking place in the source
shown on the right.

(b)Mention one immediate consequence of this event.

1. Explain the following terms:
(a)justification by faith: ______________________________________
(b) indulgences: ___________________________________________
(c) Papal bull: ____________________________________________
(d) excommunicated: ______________________________________
(e) heretic: ______________________________________________
(f) clerical celibacy: ________________________________________

2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther.


1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned? __________________________________


2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.

(a) ____________________________________________________________________

(b) ____________________________________________________________________

(c) ____________________________________________________________________

3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country

where it was not.

(a) Successful in: __________________________________________________________

(b) Unsuccessful in: ________________________________________________________

Reformation and Counter-reformation videos

Tuesday, 13 April 2010

Vocabulario Units 7 and 8

Unit 7

Unit 8

  1. Marco Polo
  2. Technical advances
  3. Portulan Charts
  4. Compass
  5. astrolabe
  6. Quadrant
  7. Caravels
  8. Prince Henry the Navigator
  9. Bartolomeu Dias
  10. Vasco de Gama
  11. Christopher Columbus
  12. Ferdinand Magallan
  13. Juan Sebastian Elcano
  14. Overseas empires
  15. Treaty of Tordesillas
  16. Indigenous population of America
  1. The plague
  2. The Black Death
  3. Bourgueoisie
  4. bureaucracy
  5. army
  6. diplomatic
  7. autoritarian monarchies
  8. Ivan the Great
  9. Henry VIII
  10. Charles VII
  11. Francis I
  12. Catholic Monarchs
  13. Holy brotherhood
  14. Royal Council
  15. Corregidores
  16. Treasury
  17. Tribunal of the Inquisition
  18. conversos
  19. Mudejares
  20. Moriscos

  • First of all you have to do the glosary in the end of your book.
  • Second, you have to look for the meaning of these words and write them in english:
You need to know these words and your meanings for the next exam. I´m going to ask you.