Thursday, 10 December 2009

La LLegada de los Musulmanes a España

En el año 711, los musulmanes invadieron España aprovechando las luchas internas en el reino visigodo. El ejército árabe, al mando de Tarik, venció a los seguidores del rey visigodo Rodrigo en la batalla de Guadalete y se apoderó del reino. Su nueva capital fue instalada en la ciudad de Córdoba.

La dominación de los musulmanes en este territorio se prolongó durante 8 siglos. Durante este período se desarrollaron largas luchas entre cristianos y musulmanes, aunque gran cantidad de españoles adoptaron las creencias y costumbres de los invasores.

La llegada de los musulmanes a Europa logró reinstalar en el continente parte de la cultura, en decadencia a partir de las invasiones germánicas:

Tuesday, 8 December 2009

El reino de los cielos, película sobre la Edad Media

Esta película está ambientada a finales del siglo XII, justo antes de la III Cruzada, y nos puede dar una idea de cómo era el entorno medieval en que se movía la sociedad de la época, además de darnos una visión sobre las cruzadas. Una vez que la veas da tu opinión, en los comentarios, sobre ella.

Monday, 7 December 2009

Meaning of word Units 2

1. Vikings- New invaders, they came from Scandinavia. They conquered the British Isles, northern France and southern Italy, and they founded kingdoms.

2. Magyars-, New invasions in Europe from the year 800 to 1100 , they came from the steppes of Asia. They settled in Eastern Europe, and they founded the kingdom of Hungary

3. Saracens-They were Muslim pirates who attached the Mediterranean coasts of Europe.

4. Serfs- They were completely subjected to the lord’s authority . They could not to leave the fief or get married without permission . They are not paid for their work. Serfdom was passed down to their children

5. Nobles-is a state, a privileged status which generally was hereditary, but which may also be personal only. They were the knights and their families. Their duty was to defend the population.

6. Fief or manor- It’s the land which was received by Nobles in exchange for swearing allegiance to the king. Each one has got a castle where the lord lives. There were also villages where the peasants lived, fields and forests.

7. Vassals- Noble who accepting the king's supremacy. The barons became the kings vassals by ceremony where they paid homage and swore allegiance to the king

8. Paid homage- It’s a ceremony where the vassals paid homage to the king and swore alliance to him.

9. Court- It was formed by a group of lawyers, clergy and soldiers. They helped to the king to govern. Their decisions usually only affected to the king's lands.

10. Demesne- It is called to a part of the land on the manor, that it was used by the lord himself.

11. Clergy- One of states . They were the monks and priests. They had to pray for the spiritual salvation of the people.

12. Privileged states- It was formed by the nobles and the clergy. These states had advantages in the medieval society.

13. Pope- He was the head of the Church who lives In Rome. He also ruled over the Papal State on the Italian Peninsula.

14. Order of Saint Benedict- It was the most important order in the early Middle Ages.

15. Regular clergy- They were member of religious orders. Each order was led by an abbot.

16. Knights- Nobles who after a military hard training fought on horseback and they weapons were the lance, the shield and the mace. They were made knights in a special ceremony.

17. Tithe- It is religious tax, the serfs paid the tenth of the harvest to the Church.

18. Fallow- Every year the peasants left half of their land resting so that it recover and became fertile again.

19. Self-sufficient- It’s when they did not need anything by any other place. It’s produced all they need. They grew food, made clothes and furniture, and built their houses.

Sunday, 6 December 2009

Meaning of word Unit 1

1. Allah- Islamic God.

2. Byzantine Empire- The new name of the Eastern Roman empire. Its capital was Constantinople.

3. Carolingian Empire- Empire founded by Charlemagne when in the 800 was crowned new Emperor of West.

4. Germanic - Tribes that they lived in the north of the roman empire. This tribes invaded West Roman empire and this disappeared

5. Hegira-This date marks the start of the Muslim calendar. It is when Muhammad moved to Medina in 622.

6. Islam- A new religion made from Muhammad.

7. Justinian Code- It modernised the Roman law.

8. Mosaics- style of painting was made with little pieces of stone, glass, …which covered the walls and ceilings of churches and palaces.

9. Monotheistic- they only believe in one god.

10. Ramadan- It's a month in the Islamic calendar where the Muslims have to fast.

11. Huns- one of the Barbarians tribes who attacked the Roman empire, also they attacked the Visigoths in the 4th century.

12. Basileus- He is the emperor in the East Empire. He had great power. He commanded the army and government, and he was also religious leader.

13. Byzantine Orthodox Church- It's a religion like the Catholic but in the Eastern Europe.

14. East-West Schism-It's the separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church.

15. Icons-They are holy images that they were in the churches.

16. Treaty of Verdun- It’s a treaty which confirmed the division of the Carolingian Empire

17. Missi dominici- also called messengers, they check on local affairs, and ensure that the system of government was functioning properly in the Charlemagne Empire .

18. Counties- name by the administrative units in which Charlemagne divided his empire