1. Vikings- New invaders, they came from Scandinavia. They conquered the British Isles, northern France and southern Italy, and they founded kingdoms.
2. Magyars-, New invasions in Europe from the year 800 to 1100 , they came from the steppes of Asia. They settled in Eastern Europe, and they founded the kingdom of Hungary
3. Saracens-They were Muslim pirates who attached the Mediterranean coasts of Europe.
4. Serfs- They were completely subjected to the lord’s authority . They could not to leave the fief or get married without permission . They are not paid for their work. Serfdom was passed down to their children
5. Nobles-is a state, a privileged status which generally was hereditary, but which may also be personal only. They were the knights and their families. Their duty was to defend the population.
6. Fief or manor- It’s the land which was received by Nobles in exchange for swearing allegiance to the king. Each one has got a castle where the lord lives. There were also villages where the peasants lived, fields and forests.
7. Vassals- Noble who accepting the king's supremacy. The barons became the kings vassals by ceremony where they paid homage and swore allegiance to the king
8. Paid homage- It’s a ceremony where the vassals paid homage to the king and swore alliance to him.
9. Court- It was formed by a group of lawyers, clergy and soldiers. They helped to the king to govern. Their decisions usually only affected to the king's lands.
10. Demesne- It is called to a part of the land on the manor, that it was used by the lord himself.
11. Clergy- One of states . They were the monks and priests. They had to pray for the spiritual salvation of the people.
12. Privileged states- It was formed by the nobles and the clergy. These states had advantages in the medieval society.
13. Pope- He was the head of the Church who lives In Rome. He also ruled over the Papal State on the Italian Peninsula.
14. Order of Saint Benedict- It was the most important order in the early Middle Ages.
15. Regular clergy- They were member of religious orders. Each order was led by an abbot.
16. Knights- Nobles who after a military hard training fought on horseback and they weapons were the lance, the shield and the mace. They were made knights in a special ceremony.
17. Tithe- It is religious tax, the serfs paid the tenth of the harvest to the Church.
18. Fallow- Every year the peasants left half of their land resting so that it recover and became fertile again.
19. Self-sufficient- It’s when they did not need anything by any other place. It’s produced all they need. They grew food, made clothes and furniture, and built their houses.
Vanguardias del s. XX
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