Thursday, 10 December 2009

La LLegada de los Musulmanes a España

En el año 711, los musulmanes invadieron España aprovechando las luchas internas en el reino visigodo. El ejército árabe, al mando de Tarik, venció a los seguidores del rey visigodo Rodrigo en la batalla de Guadalete y se apoderó del reino. Su nueva capital fue instalada en la ciudad de Córdoba.

La dominación de los musulmanes en este territorio se prolongó durante 8 siglos. Durante este período se desarrollaron largas luchas entre cristianos y musulmanes, aunque gran cantidad de españoles adoptaron las creencias y costumbres de los invasores.

La llegada de los musulmanes a Europa logró reinstalar en el continente parte de la cultura, en decadencia a partir de las invasiones germánicas:

Tuesday, 8 December 2009

El reino de los cielos, película sobre la Edad Media

Esta película está ambientada a finales del siglo XII, justo antes de la III Cruzada, y nos puede dar una idea de cómo era el entorno medieval en que se movía la sociedad de la época, además de darnos una visión sobre las cruzadas. Una vez que la veas da tu opinión, en los comentarios, sobre ella.

Monday, 7 December 2009

Meaning of word Units 2

1. Vikings- New invaders, they came from Scandinavia. They conquered the British Isles, northern France and southern Italy, and they founded kingdoms.

2. Magyars-, New invasions in Europe from the year 800 to 1100 , they came from the steppes of Asia. They settled in Eastern Europe, and they founded the kingdom of Hungary

3. Saracens-They were Muslim pirates who attached the Mediterranean coasts of Europe.

4. Serfs- They were completely subjected to the lord’s authority . They could not to leave the fief or get married without permission . They are not paid for their work. Serfdom was passed down to their children

5. Nobles-is a state, a privileged status which generally was hereditary, but which may also be personal only. They were the knights and their families. Their duty was to defend the population.

6. Fief or manor- It’s the land which was received by Nobles in exchange for swearing allegiance to the king. Each one has got a castle where the lord lives. There were also villages where the peasants lived, fields and forests.

7. Vassals- Noble who accepting the king's supremacy. The barons became the kings vassals by ceremony where they paid homage and swore allegiance to the king

8. Paid homage- It’s a ceremony where the vassals paid homage to the king and swore alliance to him.

9. Court- It was formed by a group of lawyers, clergy and soldiers. They helped to the king to govern. Their decisions usually only affected to the king's lands.

10. Demesne- It is called to a part of the land on the manor, that it was used by the lord himself.

11. Clergy- One of states . They were the monks and priests. They had to pray for the spiritual salvation of the people.

12. Privileged states- It was formed by the nobles and the clergy. These states had advantages in the medieval society.

13. Pope- He was the head of the Church who lives In Rome. He also ruled over the Papal State on the Italian Peninsula.

14. Order of Saint Benedict- It was the most important order in the early Middle Ages.

15. Regular clergy- They were member of religious orders. Each order was led by an abbot.

16. Knights- Nobles who after a military hard training fought on horseback and they weapons were the lance, the shield and the mace. They were made knights in a special ceremony.

17. Tithe- It is religious tax, the serfs paid the tenth of the harvest to the Church.

18. Fallow- Every year the peasants left half of their land resting so that it recover and became fertile again.

19. Self-sufficient- It’s when they did not need anything by any other place. It’s produced all they need. They grew food, made clothes and furniture, and built their houses.

Sunday, 6 December 2009

Meaning of word Unit 1

1. Allah- Islamic God.

2. Byzantine Empire- The new name of the Eastern Roman empire. Its capital was Constantinople.

3. Carolingian Empire- Empire founded by Charlemagne when in the 800 was crowned new Emperor of West.

4. Germanic - Tribes that they lived in the north of the roman empire. This tribes invaded West Roman empire and this disappeared

5. Hegira-This date marks the start of the Muslim calendar. It is when Muhammad moved to Medina in 622.

6. Islam- A new religion made from Muhammad.

7. Justinian Code- It modernised the Roman law.

8. Mosaics- style of painting was made with little pieces of stone, glass, …which covered the walls and ceilings of churches and palaces.

9. Monotheistic- they only believe in one god.

10. Ramadan- It's a month in the Islamic calendar where the Muslims have to fast.

11. Huns- one of the Barbarians tribes who attacked the Roman empire, also they attacked the Visigoths in the 4th century.

12. Basileus- He is the emperor in the East Empire. He had great power. He commanded the army and government, and he was also religious leader.

13. Byzantine Orthodox Church- It's a religion like the Catholic but in the Eastern Europe.

14. East-West Schism-It's the separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church.

15. Icons-They are holy images that they were in the churches.

16. Treaty of Verdun- It’s a treaty which confirmed the division of the Carolingian Empire

17. Missi dominici- also called messengers, they check on local affairs, and ensure that the system of government was functioning properly in the Charlemagne Empire .

18. Counties- name by the administrative units in which Charlemagne divided his empire

Saturday, 28 November 2009

Test sobre la Ciudad medieval

Wednesday, 25 November 2009

How understand gothic art?

  1. Step 1

    Look at the outside of a Gothic Cathedral. One of the first things you will notice is the prevalence of gargoyles surrounding the building. The utilitarian reason for these monstrous sculptures is quite basic; they are waterspouts. As for the frightening appearance of these creatures, the most common conclusion is that they were created to symbolically keep evil spirits away.

  2. Step 2

    Note the building materials used. Gothic churches were made entirely of stone, whereas churches in the former eras used wood for the roofs, which made them susceptible to fire. The weight of the stone was eased by the use of ”flying buttresses” or buttresses used to reinforcement the building that are diagonally arched or "flying" in form.

  3. Step 3

    Gaze upward in the interior of the church. The vertical thrust towards a pointed apex is not only spiritual in origin, but it has a structural function as well in connection with the ribbed vaults.

  4. Step 4

    Notice the way the ribbed vaults are spaced and how they meet at the apex of the church. This distributes the weight of the frame, making it more structurally sound.

  5. Step 5

    Look for an abundance of Romanesque décor within the church. Sculptures, paintings and ornate stained-glass windows are notable traits of this type of architecture. The windows are large and the paintings depict scenes from both the Old and New Testament.

To know some cathedrals

Test sobre el Románico

Tuesday, 24 November 2009

Desde Benavente hasta Suiza

Un compañero vuestro, Joaquín, ha asistido el pasado día 20 a Ginebra para participar en la Presentación de la Película This is me, en la sala de los derechos Humanos que la ONU tiene en esta ciudad, con motivo del 50 aniversario de los derechos del niño.

Junto con un grupo de niños de entre 10 y 18 años, alumnos de una escuela de cine pensada especialmente para ellos, presentaron su último trabajo.

Un largometraje cuya peculiaridad reside en que ha sido escrito, diseñado, interpretado, dirigido y montado por 40 niños y jóvenes de los cinco continentes.

Los responsables de la escuela de cine afirman que "no es un documental, no es un docudrama, no es un reality show, es la vida contada en forma de ficción por sus propios protagonistas", y agregan que "los más pequeños describirán a toda voz sus experiencias de vida, con la única arma que se les permite: el cine".

Para saber más puedes seguir el enlace.1, 2, 3, 4

A medieval Joke

Wednesday, 18 November 2009

How to understand the Romanesque art ?

How to Understand Romanesque Art

Romanesque art, as a definitive style, emerged around the year 1000 and lasted until about 1150 in France, Italy, Britain and the German fiefdoms. The name literally means "in the style of the Roman.
  1. Step 1

    Recognize that this was a period of huge physical migration. For the first time in history, people were making religious pilgrimages across vast distances, stopping in various cities along the way.

  2. Step 2

    Recognize that the Crusades began in 1095 with the intention of recapturing Jerusalem from its Jewish and Muslim dwellers. This led to increased trade between northern Europe and the Islamic world.

  3. Step 3

    Know that the Romanesque is most famous for its monasticism and illuminated manuscripts. Monks wrote out pages by hand, using and developing a script called Caroline miniscule - a precursor to the Roman alphabet we now use - and embellished the pages with gold and, less commonly, silver.

  4. Step 4

    Look at pictures and examples of Romanesque art and architecture. There are good examples on the Internet.

  5. Step 5

    Know that two things took place in wall painting and manuscript illumination: Forms became smoother and more fluent with a less aggressively patterned interpretation put on nature, and the interest in contemporary Byzantine art grew more intense. Both of these tendencies aimed at representing human actions and interactions with greater conviction and increased psychological power.

  6. Step 6

    Know that this period is characterized by the building of churches with vaulted ceilings of masonry. Mason vaulting was highly fire-retardant in an era when marauding hordes and competing feudal lords regularly sacked and destroyed churches and their communities.

  7. Step 7

    Notice that relief sculpture began to appear in art, particularly in churches and in pictures with religious themes. about it

The music in this art, The Gregorian:

Buscar y descargar m�s m�sica gratis

Desplegable romanico
Diccionario románico
English romanesque art dictionary
Glossary with Medieval art Vocabulary

How recognize you the Romanesque art ?

you have to put the name of several places in the last two pictures. in English and Spanish.

Writes and you should put it in your blog

Sunday, 15 November 2009

What were the Crusades?

What were the Crusades?

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns during the time of Medieval England against the Muslims of the Middle East. In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem - the most holy of holy places for Christians. Jesus had been born in nearby Bethlehem and Jesus had spent most of his life in Jerusalem. He was crucified on Calvary Hill, also in Jerusalem. There was no more important place on Earth than Jerusalem for a true Christian which is why Christians called Jerusalem the "City of God".

However, Jerusalem was also extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, had been there and there was great joy in the Muslim world when Jerusalem was captured. A beautiful dome - called the Dome of the Rock - was built on the rock where Muhammad was said to have sat and prayed and it was so holy that no Muslim was allowed to tread on the rock or touch it when visiting the Dome.

Therefore the Christian fought to get Jerusalem back while the Muslims fought to keep Jerusalem. These wars were to last nearly 200 years

A Time line of the Crusades

Some History books do slightly vary with their dates regarding when the Crusades started. The problem seems to be on deciding whether the date a crusade was called for is the date it started, on or whether the date troops actually left for a crusade is the date it started.

The First Crusade : 1096 to 1099

The Second Crusade : 1147 to 1149

The Third Crusade : 1189 to 1192

The Fourth Crusade : 1201 to 1204

The Fifth Crusade : 1218 to 1221

The Sixth Crusade : 1228 to 1229

The Seventh Crusade : 1248 to 1254

The Eighth Crusade : 1270

In 1212 what became known as the Children’s Crusade also occurred.

Homework: Read the text and answer briefly the question: What and how were the Crusades? Writes in your blog

Wednesday, 11 November 2009

Vocabulary unit 1 and 2

  • First of all you have to do the glosary in the end of your book.
  • Second, you have to look for the meaning of these words and write them in english:

Unit 1

Unit 2
  1. Allah
  2. Byzantine Empire
  3. Carolingian Empire
  4. Germanic
  5. Hegira
  6. Islam
  7. Justinian Code
  8. mosaics
  9. monotheistic
  10. Ramadan
  11. Huns
  12. Basileus
  13. Bizantine Orthodox Chuch
  14. East-West Schism
  15. Icons
  16. Treaty of Verdum
  17. Missi dominici
  18. Counties
  1. Vikings
  2. Magyars
  3. Saracens
  4. Serfs
  5. nobles
  6. Fief o manor
  7. Vassals
  8. Paid homage
  9. Court
  10. Demesne
  11. Clergy
  12. Privileged states
  13. Pope
  14. Order of Saint Benedict
  15. Regular clergy
  16. Knight
  17. Tithe
  18. Fallow
  19. Self-sufficient

You need to know these words and your meanings for the next exam. I will ask you.

Tuesday, 10 November 2009

Female clothes in the 14th and 15th Centuries

The chemise (red) is a low-necked, long-sleeved undergarment. In this period, padded stomachs (blue) were fashionable. The corset is a short-sleeved garment that shows off the chemise. The houppelande (also green) is a voluminous garment with long, flaring sleeves. During this period, waistlines are high. The mantle is a long, semicircular or circular cloth fastened by a strap across the collarbone.

If you want to know more about the female clothes you can see this page

Sunday, 8 November 2009

Comics sobre el Feudalismo

Espero que estos comic te parezcan de interés. Han sido tomados de esta dirección

Thursday, 5 November 2009

How bread was made in medieval times?

Find out how the bread was made in medieval times. Describe the process. You can start like this:
  • First , the wheat was planted in the soil
  • After that......

Deberías ver los vídeos, sino sabes cómo se desarrolla todo el proceso, para poderlo describir.

Monday, 2 November 2009

La vida y el alimento en la Edad Media


Cultivado como alimento desde hace más de 9.000 años, el trigo ha sufrido muchos cambios. Un antepasado probable de todos los trigos cultivados es el carraón silvestre, de grano pequeño y tallo largo y quebradizo. Tipifica las especies más antiguas, como el carraón cultivado, que aún se usa como forraje, o los tipos escaña o escanda silvestres y cultivados, de grano más grueso; éstos se cultivaron mucho en las antiguas civilizaciones griega y romana, y son muy parecidos a los trigos modernos. La resistencia y el grano más grueso de las variedades espelta, todavía muy cultivadas en Europa, aumentaron mucho el rendimiento. Nuevas mejoras dieron lugar al trigo duro, utilizado para fabricar pasta alimenticia, y al trigo de panificación, rico en gluten, que da lugar a una masa elástica y ligera.

El proceso de producción del trigo en la Edad media no era muy diferente del que aparece recogido en los vídeos que te presento a continuación

Es un proceso que va desde la producción del trigo, la recolección, molienda y posterior elaboración del pan. En la actualidad ha cambiado pero aún se realiza con los sistemas tradicionales en algunas zonas del país. Lo que aquí ves se refiere a la producción y transformación de una variedad de trigo, la escanda.

Los cereales eran el alimento básico de la población en general en la Edad Media, tanto centeno como trigo, con resultados distintos en la panificación de los mismos, y con necesidades distintas, dándose el centeno en tierras más frías y con peores condiciones de suelo, siendo por lo tanto más el pan de las clases más desfavorecidas, reservándose el pan de trigo para aquellos más ricos.

Para ver la elaboración del Pan de escanda pulsa parte 1, parte 2, parte3, parte4, o el enlace general

Friday, 30 October 2009

Test sobre el mundo feudal

Thursday, 29 October 2009

Repaso de Ideas

Estos esquemas te ayudaran a repasar las ideas principales de la lección

además podrás emplear las siguientes direcciones:
Sobre el Sistema feudal y su economía

Sobre el Sistema Feudal, la sociedad , similar a a anterior.
Libros Vivos

Wednesday, 28 October 2009

Describing a painting

Describing this painting.
Describe the relationship between the people who are in the painting. Where are they?

Monday, 26 October 2009


iSince the power and security of a lord depended upon his ability to defend himself, fief owners began to build sturdy castles. Castles were designed to withstand a siege and to mount a defense.

At first castles were made of wood. But they were too easy to burn down. By 1100 CE, castles were built of stone. Thick walls surrounded a castle. Inside these thick walls, there were many buildings.

At the first sign of trouble, the commoners rushed to get inside the castle walls before the gates closed and shut them out.

Location: Castles were usually built on top of a hill, if one was handy. That way, the lookout guards could more easily spot attackers approaching.

The Moat: A moat was built around many of the castles. This was a deep ditch surrounding the castle walls, filled with water. A bridge was built to cross the moat. The bridge was raised during an attack. The moat was loaded with traps and sharp spikes in case someone tried to swim across.

The Drawbridge: The drawbridge was the bridge built across the moat. This bridge could be raised and lowered for added protection from intruders.

The Keep: One of the largest spaces behind the thick walls was the keep. The keep was a storage area topped by a huge square tower with slotted windows for castle archers to use. The keep stored food, wine, and grain in case of siege.

The Barracks: Other buildings made up the barracks. the barracks were the homes of the knights and their families.

The Great Hall: The Great Hall was a passageway that connected the lord's home to the keep.

The Chapel: The chapel was build either inside the lord's home or as a separate building. The chapel was a place to hold religious services.

The Gatehouse: The gatehouse was a building used by the guards at the gates. The portcullis was the grating of iron bars at the gateway. (medievaleurope)

Here play with the Castle

And one interesting web about Medieval Arms Race


Sunday, 25 October 2009

The Chuch

The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it had its own laws and large coffers. Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king's council and played leading roles in government. Bishops, who were often wealthy and came from noble families, ruled over groups of parishes called "diocese." Parish priests, on the other hand, came from humbler backgrounds and often had little education. The village priest tended to the sick and indigent and, if he was able, taught Latin and the Bible to the youth of the village.

As the population of Europe expanded in the twelfth century, the churches that had been built in the Roman style with round-arched roofs became too small. Some of the grand cathedrals, strained to their structural limits by their creators' drive to build higher and larger, collapsed within a century or less of their construction.

Refugiados, vidas en transito

Desde 10 de Octubre al 22 de Noviembre de 2009 se presenta en Benavente la exposición “Refugiados, vidas en tránsito” ubicada en la Casa de Cultura de La Encomienda, organizada por la Fundación “la Caixa” en colaboración con el Ayuntamiento de Benavente.

Con esta exposición, se pretende contribuir a un mejor conocimiento de la realidad en la que viven miles de refugiados del mundo e incidir especialmente, en la de los refugiados de Kiziba y Gihembe en Ruanda, donde se da soporte a un programa de formación y capacitación para niños y jóvenes.

La exposición cuenta con diversas partes, entre ellas paneles explicativos, interactivos, un reportaje fotográfico y un vídeo documental, además de la reproducción de una cabaña que simula a las que existen en este tipo de campos. También se incluyen varios materiales realizados por los propios refugiados con los que se contextualiza su vida cotidiana.

La visita se completa con un taller que pretende acercar a los escolares a la realidad de las personas refugiadas: ¿Qué significa ser una persona refugiada? ¿Qué es un campo de refugiados? ¿Cómo se vive? ¿Qué hacen las personas que viven en estos campos de refugiados? A través de actividades participativas, los chicos y las chicas deberán implicarse para organizar el campo de refugiados de la mejor manera posible.

Friday, 23 October 2009

Cultura en Benavente

Con esta sección pretendemos abrir un espacio para tenerte informado sobre algunos aspectos que están sucediendo o van a suceder en Benavente y su entorno, y gracias a la encargada de la sección de cultura del Ayuntamientode Benavente esto ya es ahora posible.

En primer lugar noticias frescas para todos los amantes del teatro:


VIERNES, 13 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 2009 a las 22.00 HORAS



-Entrada Gratuita-

Organizada por la Caja Rural en colaboración con la Concejalía de Cultura del Ayuntamiento de Benavente

ha sido escrita para ofrecer las siguientes cualidades educativas:

• Difundir mensajes orientados a fomentar valores sociales en la etapa escolar.

• Promover desde las edades más tempranas la afición por las artes escénicas y la Cultura en general.

Postdata” es una obra de teatro juvenil, especialmente dirigida a escolares entre 13 y 18 años, oportunamente creada para este fin. La principal cualidad de la obra, está en sus diálogos que reproducen las conversaciones de las que nadie habla. Y delante de todos los que han participado en las agresiones de una forma u otra, los acosadores, los que han mirado hacia otro lado, los adultos, etc. Y muy especialmente, ante el entorno, el grupo de clase, los que nunca deberían consentir. Esta circunstancia, hace que “Postdata sea un mensaje corrector de conductas primarias de escolares en las edades en que mejor se pueden tratar de corregir.

Para saber más de la obra

Para cualquier duda o pregunta dirigirse a

Casa de Cultura. Plaza de la Encomienda S/N

49600 Benavente.Zamora.Telf. 980 63 33 32