Thursday, 11 March 2010

Vocabulary unit 5 and 6

1 Ummayad:
Family that ruled the Islam Empire of Damascus, their members were assassinated and the last escaped to Al-Andalus in 750.

2 Caliphate of Damascus: Islam Empire which capital was in Damascus .
3 Caliphate of Cordoba: Was the most brilliant period of Al-Andalus, the capital was in Cordoba
4 Al-Andalus: Were the Iberian territories in the power of the Muslims during eight centuries.
5 Jews: People who lived in Spain under the Muslim rule, that play an important role in the economy.

6 Emirate: Territory governed by the emir.
7 Emir: Person appointed by the caliph, who ruled the emirate

8 Walis: Were governors, who controlled the provinces.
9 Visir: Was a minister.
10 Hayib: Was the primer minister.
11 Raids: Fast attacks that they were used to obtain money and prisoners, in the Caliphate of Cordoba.
12 Taifas: Name by the Muslims kingdoms when the Caliphate of Cordoba was divided in small kingdoms

13 Parias: Taxes paid by the taifas to the Christian Kingdoms.
14 Almoravids: Warriors Berbers from the north of Africa, called by the Muslim Kingdoms.
15 Almohads: Warriors Berbers from the north of Africa, called by the Muslim Kingdoms.
Battle of Navas de Tolosa: Battle produced in 1212 when the Muslims were defeated.

17 Nasrid Kingdom: The last Muslim kingdom, formed by the Nasrid family.
18 Dinar: money, coin of gold.
19 Dirhem: money, coin of silver.
20 Arabs: People who were the descendants of the conquerors of the Arabian peninsula.
21 Berbers: Warriors of the north of Africa.
22 Muladies: Christian who adopted the religion language and customs of Islam.
23 Mozarabs: Christians who continued to practise their religion.
24 Medina: Was the main area in the old Muslim city.
25 Aljama: Was the main mosque in the Muslim city.
26 Mosque: Was a place where the Muslims went to pray.
27 Arrabales: Were worker's districts, where the craft workshops were located.
28 Alcázar: A fortified area in the highest part of the town. The centre of political life.
29 Souk: Was the market, a place where social and economic life was centred.
30 Alhóndigas: Large warehouses, where the merchants kept their goods.
31 Averroes: Was an Islam
philosopher who lived in this period.

32 Maimonides: Was an Islam intellectual,
33 Horseshoe arches: Were the arches used in the Islamic architecture.
34 Plasterwork: Was used to decorate the Islamic buildings.

1 Reconquest: Time that lasted the conquered of the Iberian Peninsula, when the Christians defeated the Muslims.

2 Kingdom of Asturias: Kingdom created by the Christians in mountain ranges of Cantabria.

3 Kingdom of León:Was originated when the capital of the kingdom of Asturias was moved to Leon.
4 Aragonese counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
5 Catalan counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
6 Pelayo: Was chose by the Visigoths as their king, defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Covadonga.
7 Battle of Covadonga: Was produced in 722.The Muslim was defeated by the Christian
8 Alfonso III: He was one king who reigned in the last years of 9th century and early years of the 10th century, when was the greatest expansion just that moment.

9 Fernán Gonzalez: he divided Castile in a county which was made independent.
10 Spanish March: Lands in the south of Pyrenees between the Muslims and the Carolingian Empire.
11 Carolingian Empire: Empire created by Charlemagne was dissolved in the 9th century. it had the Spanish march in the Pyrenean region.
12 Sancho III the Great: King of Navarre, he became the most powerful Christian king on the Peninsula in the 11th century.
13 Wilfred the Hairy: Was the person who united the Catalan counties, in the 9th century.
14 Beatus: Kind of book that is a famous example of the mozarabic art. It was a manuscript with beautiful paintings
15 Mozarabic art: Was the art witch emerged in the Christian kingdoms in the 10th century.
16 Mudejar art: It Was emerged in the 12th in Sahagún, Leon.
17 Asturian art: Art Developed near of Oviedo between the 8th and 10th centuries.
18 Repopulation: Was produced when the Christians kingdom advance went from the Duero valley until the Granada Kingdom
19 Fueros: Were the privileges given by the kings to the towns.
20 Military orders: Religious order, was a religious army created by the feudal estates to fight to the Muslim advance
21 Mudejars: Where Muslims who remained in Christian territory.
22 Alfonso VI: He conquered Toledo, the Tajo valley and a part of Andalusia.
23 Ferdinand III: Was the person who united Castile and Leon in 1230 and founded the crown of Castile.
24 Cortes: Their function was to approve or reject new taxes.
25 Honourable Council of the Mesta: was creates in 1273 to discuss the problem of the Merino sheep. It was a council of breed sheep and your problems
26 Alfonso I the Battler: Was the first king of Aragon.
27 James I the Conqueror: King of the Crown of Aragon. He took Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and the Balearic islands.
28 Generalitat: An institution which defended the rights of individuals in Catalonia, Aragon, Valencia, ensured that the fueros and decisions of their Cortes were respected

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