Sunday, 28 March 2010
Thursday, 25 March 2010
Wednesday, 24 March 2010
Tuesday, 23 March 2010
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Artists and work
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Artists and work
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Artists and work
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Monday, 22 March 2010
During the Renaissance, Italy was made up of several independent city-states. Florence, which was ruled by the powerful and wealthy Medici family, became a mecca for painters, sculptors, philosophers, scientists, and poets largely because of the Medicis’ eagerness to sponsor the work of such artists. One of the most famous of these artists, both in his own time and today, was Leonardo da Vinci.
In 1452, Leonardo was born in a village near the town of Vinci.
He showed a talent for drawing early on and was taken to Florence as an apprentice to the painter Andrea del Verrocchio.
Although only a few of his paintings survive—the most famous of which is the Mona Lisa—Leonardo’s superb use of color, perspective, and line make each of them a masterpiece.
In addition to being a master painter, Leonardo was an extraordinarily brilliant sculptor, thinker,
architect, scientist, and inventor, as well as a musician and an engineer. Among the many inventions he created or envisioned—hundreds of years ahead of his time—were the submarine, tank, helicopter, bicycle, and telescope. Many of Leonardo’s creations were never finished, but he left behind thousands of pages of drawings, records, experiments, observations, and plans in dozens of notebooks.
Unfortunately, many more pages were lost. They were each in Leonardo’s distinctive script, written from right to left and requiring a mirror to read them. It is not known why Leonardo wrote this way, but some theorize that he used backward writing to keep his ideas secret.
Although Leonardo experienced great success throughout his life, he was constantly in search of
a patron. One of the most unlikely of his patrons was Cesare Borgia, the son of the corrupt Pope Alexander II. A brilliant but ruthless general, Borgia’s goal was to seize control of central Italy from the French who then ruled it. Leonardo traveled with Borgia for a year as a military engineer, inspecting fortresses and making maps.
Around 1516, Leonardo left Italy for France, where he lived out his final days in the court of Francis I.
He took with him his notebooks and three paintings, including the Mona Lisa. In 1860, historian Jacob Burckhardt referred to Leonardo as the “universal man,” because he had excelled in so many areas.
Today we often refer to such a genius as a “Renaissance man”.
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo's Mystery Machinery
Leonardo - Take a closer look (flash)
Leonardo - Right to Left
Leonardo da Vinci
The renaissance connection
Who is who
What do you think about Leonardo?
Sunday, 21 March 2010
Friday, 12 March 2010
Thursday, 11 March 2010
1 Ummayad: Family that ruled the Islam Empire of Damascus, their members were assassinated and the last escaped to Al-Andalus in 750.
2 Caliphate of Damascus: Islam Empire which capital was in Damascus .
3 Caliphate of Cordoba: Was the most brilliant period of Al-Andalus, the capital was in Cordoba
4 Al-Andalus: Were the Iberian territories in the power of the Muslims during eight centuries.
5 Jews: People who lived in Spain under the Muslim rule, that play an important role in the economy.
6 Emirate: Territory governed by the emir.
7 Emir: Person appointed by the caliph, who ruled the emirate
8 Walis: Were governors, who controlled the provinces.
9 Visir: Was a minister.
10 Hayib: Was the primer minister.
11 Raids: Fast attacks that they were used to obtain money and prisoners, in the Caliphate of Cordoba.
12 Taifas: Name by the Muslims kingdoms when the Caliphate of Cordoba was divided in small kingdoms
13 Parias: Taxes paid by the taifas to the Christian Kingdoms.
14 Almoravids: Warriors Berbers from the north of Africa, called by the Muslim Kingdoms.
15 Almohads: Warriors Berbers from the north of Africa, called by the Muslim Kingdoms.
16 Battle of Navas de Tolosa: Battle produced in 1212 when the Muslims were defeated.
17 Nasrid Kingdom: The last Muslim kingdom, formed by the Nasrid family.
18 Dinar: money, coin of gold.
19 Dirhem: money, coin of silver.
20 Arabs: People who were the descendants of the conquerors of the Arabian peninsula.
21 Berbers: Warriors of the north of Africa.
22 Muladies: Christian who adopted the religion language and customs of Islam.
23 Mozarabs: Christians who continued to practise their religion.
24 Medina: Was the main area in the old Muslim city.
25 Aljama: Was the main mosque in the Muslim city.
26 Mosque: Was a place where the Muslims went to pray.
27 Arrabales: Were worker's districts, where the craft workshops were located.
28 Alcázar: A fortified area in the highest part of the town. The centre of political life.
29 Souk: Was the market, a place where social and economic life was centred.
30 Alhóndigas: Large warehouses, where the merchants kept their goods.
31 Averroes: Was an Islam philosopher who lived in this period.
32 Maimonides: Was an Islam intellectual,
33 Horseshoe arches: Were the arches used in the Islamic architecture.
34 Plasterwork: Was used to decorate the Islamic buildings.
1 Reconquest: Time that lasted the conquered of the Iberian Peninsula, when the Christians defeated the Muslims.
2 Kingdom of Asturias: Kingdom created by the Christians in mountain ranges of Cantabria.
3 Kingdom of León:Was originated when the capital of the kingdom of Asturias was moved to Leon.
4 Aragonese counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
5 Catalan counties: Was formed when the Carolingian Empire was divided.
6 Pelayo: Was chose by the Visigoths as their king, defeated the Muslims in the
7 Battle of Covadonga: Was produced in 722.The Muslim was defeated by the Christian
8 Alfonso III: He was one king who reigned in the last years of 9th century and early years of the 10th century, when was the greatest expansion just that moment.
9 Fernán Gonzalez: he divided
10 Spanish March: Lands in the south of
11 Carolingian Empire: Empire created by Charlemagne was dissolved in the 9th century. it had the Spanish march in the Pyrenean region.
12 Sancho III the Great: King of
13 Wilfred the Hairy: Was the person who united the Catalan counties, in the 9th century.
14 Beatus: Kind of book that is a famous example of the mozarabic art. It was a manuscript with beautiful paintings
15 Mozarabic art: Was the art witch emerged in the Christian kingdoms in the 10th century.
16 Mudejar art: It Was emerged in the 12th in
17 Asturian art: Art Developed near of
18 Repopulation: Was produced when the Christians kingdom advance went from the Duero valley until the Granada Kingdom
19 Fueros: Were the privileges given by the kings to the towns.
20 Military orders: Religious order, was a religious army created by the feudal estates to fight to the Muslim advance
21 Mudejars: Where Muslims who remained in Christian territory.
22 Alfonso VI: He conquered Toledo, the Tajo valley and a part of Andalusia.
23 Ferdinand III: Was the person who united Castile and Leon in 1230 and founded the crown of Castile.
24 Cortes: Their function was to approve or reject new taxes.
25 Honourable Council of the Mesta: was creates in 1273 to discuss the problem of the Merino sheep. It was a council of breed sheep and your problems
26 Alfonso I the Battler: Was the first king of Aragon.
27 James I the Conqueror: King of the Crown of Aragon. He took Valencia, Alicante, Murcia and the Balearic islands.
28 Generalitat: An institution which defended the rights of individuals in Catalonia, Aragon, Valencia, ensured that the fueros and decisions of their Cortes were respected
Wednesday, 10 March 2010
Use the Internet and find out more about Henry VIII of England, and answer these question:
- What happened during his reign?
- How many wifes did he have?
- Who were they and what happened to them?
- What happened to his relations with the Pope?
- What was the name of the church he established in England?
Check your knowledge
Explain these expressions: Diplomatic, Domestic policy, dynasty, marriage alliance.
What was the Holy Brotherhood?
What was the function of the Tribunal of the Inquisition?
Who were the conversors?
How did the Catholic Monarchs strenghten their power over the municipalities and the nobility.
What was the religious policy of the Catolhic Monarchs?
Did the Catholic Monarchs do things which benefited their kingdoms?
What controversial laws and institutions did they introduce?
Your conclusión can include your personal point of view.
You can use your book or see some answer here.
Place the answers in your blog
Tuesday, 9 March 2010
" Un cuadro que podría servir de inspiración para una novela de misterio y que fue pintado por Holbein en 1533: Se titulaba Jean de Dinteville y Georges de Selve, aunque ha pasado a la historia con el sobrenombre de Los Embajadores.
Se conserva en la National Gallery de Londres y hoy vamos a intentar analizarlo al detalle... Para ello he editado una serie de fotografías en las que iremos descubriendo significados y símbolos ocultos, perspectivas adelantadas a su tiempo, objetos curiosos... Veréis que está lleno de sorpresas...
En una época de la Historia... En Francia, Francisco I, archienemigo de nuestro emperador Carlos V, busca reforzar sus posiciones contra el imperio español. Para ello, mira hacia el norte, a Inglaterra, donde nos encontramos con Enrique VIII inmerso en sus problemas de faldas con su esposa española, la "Católica" Catalina de Aragón, hija de los Reyes católicos.
España disfrutaba momentos dorados convertida en Imperio al mando de Carlos V, mientras en el resto de Europa se vivían conflictos de intereses resueltos a base de batallas o matrimonios.
En el caso de Inglaterra, la situación era aún más complicada... Cuando el francés Francisco I requería la ayuda de Enrique VIII en su cruzada contra nuestro Carlos V, el Tudor se halló ante un mar de dudas... Por un lado, su esposa, hija de los Reyes Católicos y por tanto tía del emperador español... Por otro lado, Ana Bolena, de la que se había enamorado perdidamente...
En este convulso momento histórico de alianzas de Estados, de intereses enfrentados y pactos entremezclados, se enmarca nuestro cuadro de hoy... Los embajadores:
A la izquierda, Jean de Dintelle, embajador de Francia en Inglaterra. A la derecha, Georges de Selve, Obispo de Lavaur que también desempeñaba funciones diplomáticas ante el imperio romano germánico y la Santa Sede.
El año... 1533, un año marcado por el matrimonio de Enrique VIII con Ana Bolena, un ... uyyy momento peliagudo para Europa... el Tudor se distancia de España haciéndole un feo y rechazando a su esposa española, y los franceses ven en esto una ocasión para acercarse a Inglaterra.
El pintor... Hans Holbein el joven, inundó el cuadro de simbolismos, de significados ocultos, de objetos sorprendentes y de guiños que han quedado para la Historia, muchos de los cuales aún siguen desconcertando a los expertos.
En el cuadro encontramos numerosos objetos astronómicos que el pintor incluyó premeditadamente, incluyendo en ellos numerosos datos y significados.
El globo terraqueo está centrado en Europa y en él se distingue la linea de separación del Tratado de Tordesillas que dividió el nuevo mundo en 1494 entre España y Portugal, se puede seguir también la ruta que Magallanes realizó en su vuelta al mundo e incluso algunos trazos de la recién descubierta América.
El globo celeste. A pesar de que la reunión entre los embajadores tuvo lugar en Londres, es curioso que el cielo que señala no corresponde al cielo inglés... La pintura indica una latitud de unos 43º lo que indicaría el cielo visto desde lugares como España o como el Vaticano...
La estantería superior está repleta de instrumentos astronómicos, entre los que destacan, además del globo, los relojes solares y el torquetum... en ellos nos vamos a centrar ahora:
- Relojes solares: En especial el reloj poliédrico que señala mediante sombras una curiosa fecha que aproximadamente se puede intuir entre el 11 y el 14 de Abril de 1533... Sin embargo, está constatado que durante estos días, el pintor no se encontraba en Londres pintando el cuadro. Este hecho ha desconcertado durante bastante tiempo a historiadores y expertos que aún no se ponen de acuerdo... La tesis más seguida apunta a que puede tratarse del 11 de Abril, ya que en ese año se celebraba el Viernes Santo y podría unirse a la simbología de los libros y el crucifijo que también aparecen en la pintura.
- Torquetum: El cuadro de Holbein nos muestra la única ilustración histórica que existe de este singular instrumento.
Las primeras noticias que tenemos de este mecanismo que convertía coordenadas, nos llegan de la mano de Ptolomeo, pero durante siglos no se supo nada más de él, hasta la edad media donde se realizaron algunos ejemplares... lamentablemente, ninguno de ellos se ha conservado.
Junto con la máquina de Antiquitera, el torquetum es uno de los misterios más interesantes que se conservan de la antigua Grecia, a pesar de que no ha llegado ninguno hasta nuestros días.
Os dejo un enlace interesantísimo (en inglés) donde podéis descubrir la historia del Torquetum, sus curiosidades e incluso podéis construir uno vostros mismos.
Tanto en la estantería superior como en la inferior, nos encontramos con un total de tres libros:
Libro de Aritmética (7) - Se trata de un ejemplar del libro "Eyn newe unnd wohlgründte underweysung aller Kauffmanss Rechnung in dreyen büchern" escrito en 1527 por Peter Apian y dedicado a las prácticas comerciales de la incipiente burguesía comerciante, una clase social que en aquellos años comenzaba a estar en alza.
Libro ÆTATIS SVÆ 25 (10) - El libro es un misterio aún, ya que sólo podemos verlo parcialmente... Además, el libro aparece cerrado y con un cierre metálico que deja abiertas muchas incógnitas... La inscripción en sus hojas podría equivaler a la edad de Georges de Selves, que en aquellos días tenía 25 años.
Libro de Cantos Religiosos (6) - En concreto el "Geistlich Gesangbuhli" de Johannnes Walther, sin embargo y cómo podéis ver en el gráfico más abajo, el libro aparece abierto por dos páginas que en el verdadero libro no son consecutivas.
La página de la izquierda corresponde al primer versículo del himno Veni sancte Spiritus de Lutero y la de la derecha la introducción a la Versión abreviada de los Diez Mandamientos también de Lutero... La simbología asociada a este libro y en concreto a estas dos páginas, elegidas a propósito por el pintor, podría indicar el contraste entre la Ley y la Religión, ambas encarnadas también en los dos personajes del cuadro.
Junto al libro de Cantos al que me he referido en el párrafo anterior, nos encontramos con una serie de instrumentos musicales donde la perspectiva está realmente lograda.
Tanto el Laud con su cuerda rota, como las flautas guardadas en un estuche donde falta una de ellas, abren las puertas a múltiples teorías intentando explicar su significado. Alguna de ellas apunta a la pérdida de armonía y vacío que comenzaba a sufir la Iglesia de aquellos años, y colocadas por el pintor en el ángulo inferior del cuadro, junto a los pies del Obispo Georges de Selves, representante del poder eclesiástico en esta obra.
Pero si algo destaca realmente en el cuadro de Hans Holbein es sin duda la calavera en la parte central de la escena... Una calavera extraña, deformada...
Muy unido al elemento de perspectiva que comentaba antes, esta calavera ha sido uno de los motivos principales para realizar este artículo.
Se encuadra dentro de la técnica de la Anamorfosis y es un prodigio de la técnica pictórica y la perspectiva ya en aquellos años de incipiente Renacimiento.
La Anamorfosis consiste en la representación de figuras o elementos distorsionados, los cuales sólo pueden ser contemplados correctamente desde una determinada perspectiva. (Aquí un ejemplo representativo)
El uso de calaveras como representación de la muerte del hombre, de la fugacidad de la vida humana o el rápido paso del tiempo, fue muy utilizado por los artistas del renacimiento. Surgió así, una representación pictórica conocida como Vanitas y que encierra todo este simbolismo en pinturas, esculturas y todo tipo de manifestaciones artísticas.
En el cuadro de Holbein, esta Vanitas ocupa la parte principal del cuadro, deformándolo todo y confundiendo al observador mediante la inclusión de esta fuerte perspectiva de anamorfosis.
Con una simple cuchara o algún objeto curvo que refleje la imagen podremos ver la calavera en sus dimensiones correctas. Una técnica pictórica realmente impresionante y más, si tenemos en cuenta la fecha en la que se realizó."
Tomado de..la Aldea irreductible
Para ver la calavera mejor, así como los demás detalles del cuadro
Monday, 8 March 2010
International Women's Day (8 March) is a global day celebrating the economic, political and social achievements of women past, present and future. In some places like China, Russia, Vietnam and Bulgaria, IWD is a national holiday.
International Women's Day has been observed since in the early 1900's, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies.
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women's oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman's Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.
In 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women's Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day - a Women's Day - to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women's clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkin's suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women's Day was the result.
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women's Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women's rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic 'Triangle Fire' in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women's Day events. 1911 also saw women's 'Bread and Roses' campaign.
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women's Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Wommen's Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women's solidarity.
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for "bread and peace" in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women's strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.
1918 - 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Women's Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for women's rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 1975 was designated as 'International Women's Year' by the United Nations. Women's organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour women's advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that women's equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.
2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in China, Armenia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother's Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women's and society's thoughts about women's equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that 'all the battles have been won for women' while many feminists from the 1970's know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women's visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women's education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.
However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.
Annually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women's craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.
Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as 'Women's History Month'.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Women's Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding. To Know more...
Saturday, 6 March 2010
Ver mapa más grande
El estrecho de Magallanes es un paso localizado en el extremo sur de Sudamérica, entre la Patagonia chilena, la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego y gran cantidad de islas que quedan al oeste de ésta hacia el océano Pacífico. Es el paso natural de mayor importancia entre los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico. El estrecho se halla en la actualidad íntegramente dentro de la jurisdicción de Chile, en la XII Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena. De acuerdo con los tratados argentino-chilenos de 1881 y 1984, el acceso por su boca oriental y la navegación del mismo se encuentra asegurada a los buques de todas las banderas en todo tiempo y circunstancia
Wednesday, 3 March 2010
"According to a traditional story, the plague came to Europe from the town of Caffa, a Crimean port on the Black Sea where Italian merchants from Genoa maintained a thriving trade center. The Crimea was inhabited by Tartars, a people of the steppe, a dry, treeless region of central Asia. When the plague struck the area in 1346, tens of thousands of Tartars died. Perhaps superstition caused the Muslim Tartars to blame their misfortune on the Christian Genoese. Or perhaps a Christian and Muslim had become involved in a street brawl in Caffa, and the Tartars wanted revenge. In any case, the Tartars sent an army to attack Caffa, where the Genoese had fortified themselves. As the Tartars laid siege to Caffa, plague struck their army and many died. The Tartars decided to share their suffering with the Genoese. They used huge catapults to lob the infected corpses of plague victims over the walls of Caffa. As the Tartars had intended, the rotting corpses littered the streets, and the plague quickly spread throughout the besieged city. The Genoese decided they must flee; they boarded their galleys and set sail for Italy, carrying rats, fleas, and the Black Death with them."Homework What do you Know about Bubonic Plague?
Investigate about it:
- Where did the plague arrive from?
- Effort to stop the Plague,
- Changes in the economic,
- Effect on the
Tuesday, 2 March 2010
The Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World. The early 1400s brought about great advances in European exploration. In order make trade more efficient, Portugal attempted to find a direct water route to the India and China. By using a direct water route, Arab merchants, who owned land trade routes, were not able to make a profit off of the European trade merchants. After Columbus discovered the New World in 1492, it was clear that conflict would soon arise over land claims by Spain and Portugal. The Portuguese also wanted to protect their monopoly on the trade route to Africa and felt threatened. It was only after the realization that Columbus had found something big that land became the important issue. The newly discovered land held great potential wealth which would benefit European nations.
On May 4, 1493 Pope Alexander VI took action to clear up any confusion that may have arisen over territorial claims. He issued a decree which established an imaginary line running north and south through the mid-Atlantic, 100 leagues (480 km) from the Cape Verde islands. Spain would have possession of any unclaimed territories to the west of the line and Portugal would have possession of any unclaimed territory to the east of the line.
After further exploration, the Portuguese grew dissatisfied with the agreement when they realized how much more land Spain had been given. In June of 1494 the line was re-negotiated and the agreement was officially ratified during a meeting in the Spanish town of Tordesillas. The Treaty of Tordesillas re-established the line 370 leagues (1,770 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands.
It was evident that little exploration had taken place at the time the treaty was signed because Spain was granted a much larger portion of land. Portugal was only given possession of Brazil. Portugal pushed over the next several hundred years to move the border of Brazil westward. Because the line was not very well defined, the Spanish did not put up any opposition to this Portuguese expansion.Wapedia